What are the different classes of seeds in India?


different classes of seeds in India

Certified seed: The progeny of foundation seed produced by registered seed growers under the supervision of seed certification agencies to maintain the seed quality as per minimum seed certification standards. A blue colour certificate is issued by seed certification agency for this category of seed. The foundation and certified seeds can be multiplied in stage 1 and II, but the reproduction cannot exceed three generations after breeder seed.

Breeder seed: The progeny of nucleus seed multiplied in large area as per indent of Department of Agriculture and Cooperation (DOAC), Ministry of Agriculture, Government of India, under supervision of plant breeder / institute / SAUs and monitored by a committee consisting of the representatives of state seed certification agency, national / state seed corporations, ICAR nominee and concerned breeder. This is also a hundred per cent physical and genetic pure seed for the production of foundation seed. A golden yellow colour certificate is issued for this category of seed by the producing breeder.

Nuclear seed: This is the hundred per cent genetically pure seed with physical purity and produced by the original breeder/Institute /State Agriculture University (SAU) from basic nucleus seed stock. A pedigree certificate is issued by the producing breeder.

Registered seed: Registered seed shall be the progeny of foundation seed that is so handled as to maintain its genetic identity and purity according to standard specified for the particular crop being certified. A purple colour certificate is issued for this category of seed.

Foundation seed: The progeny of breeder seed produced by recognized seed producing agencies in public and private sector, under the supervision of seed certification agencies in such a way that its quality is maintained according to the prescribed field and seed standards. A white colour certificate is issued for foundation seed by seed certification agencies.

Generation system of seed multiplication

Generation system of seed multiplication is nothing but the production of a particular class of seed from a specific class of seed up to certified seed stage. The choice of a proper seed multiplication model is the key to the further success of a seed programme. Based on these factors different seed multiplication models may be derived for each crop and the seed multiplication agency should decide how quickly the farmers can be supplied with the seed of newly released varieties after the nucleus seed stock has been handed over to the concerned agency, so that it may replace the old varieties.

In view of the basic factors, the chain of seed multiplication models could be-

  1. Three – Generation model: Breeder seed – Foundation seed – Certified seed
  2. Four – Generation model: Breeder seed – Foundation seed (I) Foundation seed (II) – Certified seed
  3. Five – Generation model: Breeder seed – Foundation seed (I)- Foundation seed (II) -Certified seed (I) –  Certified  seed

Generation system of seed multiplication Seed is the cheapest and basic input for sustained agricultural production. At the time of the release of a variety, a small quantity of seed normally known as nucleus seed is available with the plant breeder. The commercial quantity of seed is produced after a series of multiplication steps. Starting from maintenance programme in which nucleus seed is multiplied in a generation system of multiplication as a breeder, foundation and certified seed.

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