Notwithstanding quick development of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) in India, a huge rural population of the nation still lives beneath destitution line (BPL). Distinctive investigations evaluated the rate of country destitution at various levels. Regardless of the various endeavours, the rural destitution keeps on being a noteworthy test to the Government at all levels. To address the test of rural neediness, the Ministry of Rural Development introduced a mission titled as National Rural Livelihood Mission (NRLM) in the year 2010. NRLM was renamed as DAY-NRLM (Deendayal Antyodaya Yojana – National Rural Livelihood Mission) with impact from March 29, 2016.
Basic features of National Rural Livelihood Mission:
Universal Social Mobilisation – At least one woman member from each identified rural poor household, is to be brought under the Self Help Group (SHG) network in a time-bound manner. Special emphasis is particularly on vulnerable communities such as manual scavengers, victims of human trafficking, Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Groups (PVTGs), Persons with Disabilities (PwDs) and bonded labor. NRLM has devised special strategies to reach out to these communities and help them graduate out of poverty.
Participatory Identification of Poor (PIP) – The inclusion of the target group under NRLM is determined by a well-defined, transparent and equitable process of participatory identification of poor, at the level of the community. All households identified as poor through the PIP process is the NRLM Target Group and is eligible for all the benefits under the programme. Target Group is identified through the Participatory Identification of Poor (PIP) method. The NRLM Target Group (NTG) derived through the PIP is de-linked from the BPL.
Community Funds as Resources in Perpetuity – NRLM provides Revolving Fund (RF) and Community Investment Fund (CIF) as resources in perpetuity to the institutions of the poor, to strengthen their institutional and financial management capacity and build their track record to attract mainstream bank finance.
Financial Inclusion – NRLM works on both demand and supply sides of financial inclusion. On the demand side, it promotes financial literacy among the poor and provides catalytic capital to the SHGs and their federations. On the supply side, the Mission coordinates with the financial sector and encourages use of Information, Communication & Technology (ICT) based financial technologies, business correspondents and community facilitators like ‘Bank Mitras’. It also works towards universal coverage of rural poor against the risk of loss of life, health, and assets. Further, it works on remittances, especially in areas where migration is endemic.’Livelihoods – NRLM focuses on stabilizing and promoting existing livelihood portfolio of the poor through its three pillars – ‘vulnerability reduction’ and ‘livelihoods enhancement’ through deepening/enhancing and expanding existing livelihoods options and tapping new opportunities in farm and non-farm sectors; ‘employment’ – building skills for the job market outside; and ‘enterprises’ – nurturing self-employed and entrepreneurs (for micro-enterprises).
Convergence: NRLM places a high emphasis on convergence with other programmes of the MoRD and other Central Ministries. Convergence is also sought with programmes of state governments for developing synergies directly or indirectly with institutions of the poor.
Partnerships with NGOs and other CSOs: NRLM has been proactively seeking partnerships with Non-Government Organizations (NGOs) and other Civil Society Organizations (CSOs), at two levels – strategic and implementation. The partnerships are guided by NRLM’s core beliefs and values, and mutual agreement on processes and outcomes. Partnership guidelines to partner with NGOs, CSOs have been finalized and approved this year.
Linkages with PRIs: In view of the eminent roles of Panchayat Raj Institutions (PRIs), it is necessary to consciously structure and facilitates a mutually beneficial working relationship between Panchayats and institutions of the poor, particularly at the level of Village Panchayats. Formal platforms would be established for regular consultations between such institutions and PRIs for the exchange of mutual advice, support and sharing of resources.