Government is implementing several projects and programs under the Umbrella Integrated Child Development Services Scheme as directly targeted interventions to address the problem of malnutrition in the country. All these schemes projects one or other aspects related to nutrition and have the potential to improve nutritional outcomes in the country.
Malnutrition is not an only cause of death but contributes to mortality and morbidity by reducing resistance to infections. There are a number of the source of death of children such as prematurity, low birth weight, pneumonia, diarrhoeal diseases, non-communicable diseases, birth asphyxia & birth trauma, injuries, congenital anomalies, acute bacterial sepsis, and severe infections, etc.
POSHAN Abhiyaan (National Nutrition Mission) is a flagship programme of the Ministry of Women and Child Development (MWCD), Indian government, which ensures convergence with various programmes i.e., Anganwadi Services, Pradhan Mantri Matru Vandana Yojana (PMMVY), Scheme for Adolescent Girls (SAG) of MWCD, Janani Suraksha Yojana (JSY), National Health Mission (NHM), Swachh-Bharat Mission, Public Distribution System (PDS), Department Food & Public Distribution, Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme (MGNREGS) and Ministry of Drinking Water & Sanitation.
The aims of NNM are to achieve improvement in nutritional status of Children from 0-6 years, Adolescent Girls, Pregnant Women, and Lactating Mothers in a time-bound manner during the next three years beginning 2017-18. The National Nutrition Mission (NNM) has been established with a three year budget of Rs.9046.17 Crore commencing from 2017-18. The NNM is a comprehensive viewpoint towards raising nutrition level in the country on a war footing. It will combine mapping of various Schemes contributing towards addressing malnutrition, including a very robust convergence mechanism, ICT based Real Time Monitoring system, incentivizing States/UTs for meeting the targets, incentivizing Anganwadi Workers (AWWs) for using IT-based tools, eliminating registers used by AWWs, introducing measurement of height of children at the Anganwadi Centres (AWCs), Social Audits, setting-up Nutrition Resource Centres, involving masses through Jan Andolan for their participation on nutrition through various activities, among others.
The programme through the objectives will strive to reduce the level of stunting, under-nutrition, anaemia and low birth weight babies. NNM aims to reduce stunting, undernutrition, anaemia (among young children, women, and adolescent girls) and reduce low birth weight by 2%, 2%, 3% and 2% per annum respectively. Although the target to reduce Stunting is at least 2% p.a., Mission would strive to achieve a reduction in Stunting from 38.4% (NFHS-4) to 25% by 2022 (Mission 25 by 2022). It will establish synergy, ensure better monitoring, issue alerts for timely action, and encourage States/UT s to perform, guide and supervise the line Ministries and States/UT s to achieve the targeted goals.
Ministry of Women and Child Development has said that the following components will form the pillars of the Mission :
- ICDS-CAS(Common Application Software)
- Behavioural change, IEC Advocacy
- Training and Capacity building
- Grievance Redressal
Key Nutrition strategies and interventions :
- IYCF(Infant and Young child feeding)
- Food and Nutrition
- Institutional Delivery
- WASH(Water, Sanitation and Hygiene)
- Food Fortification
- Dietary Diversification
- Adolescent Nutrition
- Maternal Health and Nutrition
- ECD(Early childhood development)/ECCE(Early Childhood Care and Education)
- ICT-RTM(Information and Communication. Technology enabled Real-Time Monitoring)
- Capacity Building